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Understanding Hand Diseases: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment Options

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As a doctor specializing in hand diseases, it’s important to shed light on various conditions that can affect the hands, wrists, and fingers. Below, we’ll explore common hand diseases, their causes, symptoms, and treatment options:

  1. Trigger Finger (Stenosing Tenosynovitis):

    • Causes: Trigger finger occurs when the flexor tendon in the finger becomes inflamed or irritated, leading to difficulties in straightening or bending the finger.
    • Symptoms: Patients may experience pain, stiffness, or a popping sensation when moving the affected finger.
    • Treatment: Treatment options include rest, splinting, steroid injections, and in severe cases, surgical release of the tendon sheath.
  2. De Quervain’s Tenosynovitis:

    • Causes: De Quervain’s tenosynovitis is typically caused by repetitive hand or wrist movements, leading to inflammation of the tendons in the thumb.
    • Symptoms: Patients may experience pain, swelling, and difficulty gripping or pinching with the thumb and wrist.
    • Treatment: Treatment involves rest, splinting, anti-inflammatory medication, and in some cases, corticosteroid injections.
  3. Ganglion Cysts:

    • Causes: Ganglion cysts are noncancerous lumps filled with synovial fluid that typically develop near joints or tendons.
    • Symptoms: Patients may notice a visible lump or mass, along with pain or discomfort, especially with wrist movement.
    • Treatment: Treatment options include observation, aspiration (draining the fluid), or surgical removal for persistent or symptomatic cysts.
  4. Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis):

    • Causes: Tennis elbow is caused by overuse or repetitive stress on the tendons in the forearm, leading to inflammation and pain on the outside of the elbow.
    • Symptoms: Patients may experience pain and tenderness on the outer side of the elbow, worsened by gripping or lifting objects.
    • Treatment: Treatment may include rest, physical therapy, bracing, anti-inflammatory medication, and in some cases, corticosteroid injections.
  5. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome:

    • Causes: Carpal tunnel syndrome occurs when the median nerve becomes compressed or irritated as it travels through the carpal tunnel in the wrist.
    • Symptoms: Patients may experience numbness, tingling, or weakness in the thumb, index, middle, and half of the ring finger.
    • Treatment: Treatment options include wrist splinting, activity modification, corticosteroid injections, and in severe cases, surgical release of the carpal tunnel.
  6. Dupuytren’s Contracture:

    • Causes: Dupuytren’s contracture is a condition where thickened tissue forms under the skin of the palm, causing one or more fingers to bend into the palm.
    • Symptoms: Patients may notice nodules or cords in the palm of the hand, leading to progressive contracture of the fingers.
    • Treatment: Treatment options range from observation to minimally invasive procedures like needle aponeurotomy or surgical fasciectomy.
  7. Hand Fractures and Trauma:

    • Causes: Hand fractures and trauma can result from direct impact, falls, sports injuries, or accidents.
    • Symptoms: Symptoms vary depending on the type and severity of the fracture but may include pain, swelling, bruising, and deformity.
    • Treatment: Treatment may involve immobilization with a splint or cast, closed reduction, surgical fixation, and rehabilitation to restore function.

It’s important for patients to seek medical attention promptly if they experience persistent or worsening symptoms related to hand diseases. A thorough evaluation by a hand specialist can help determine the underlying cause and tailor treatment to achieve the best possible outcomes.

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